One week ago

The Open Group to Hold Upcoming Event in Amsterdam

The Open Group, the vendor-neutral technology standards consortium, is hosting its upcoming event in Amsterdam, November 4 – 7, 2019. The Open Group Amsterdam 2019 will bring together vendors and end user organizations to discuss a range of topics focused around a central theme of Agile Architecture. The event will host attendees from throughout the globe, including decision-makers, Enterprise Architects, engineers, technologists, and end-users representing many businesses and governments.

1 month, 26 days ago

The Future Enterprise Architect

Before describing the future Enterprise Architect, we will reflect on the current Enterprise Architect, one of their customers – a current line of business leader – and the strained relationship between them. For the sake of personalization, we will call the current Enterprise Architect ‘Archie’, and current line of business leader ‘Loretta’.

In the future state of Enterprise Architecture, the relationship between the two evolves towards one that is more productive and trusted. We describe what a future Enterprise Architect might look like and summarize the salient differences.

2 months, 9 days ago

Agility within The Open Group

What an exciting event in the city of Denver, Colorado the week of July 22, 2019! If you were at this conference you would probably have noticed the breadth and depth of work happening in The Open Group and, as well, noticed the impact it is having throughout various industries. A lot of really great stuff is going on thanks to those members working on real issues best addressed through collaboration! Kudos to the Members!!

One of the things I heard from some Members, expressed as a “potential” issue, was work being done that might be considered overlapping. Specifically referenced was TOGAF® Architecture Development Method, the Digital Practitioner Body of Knowledge™ (DPBok) Standard, and Snapshot of The Open Group Agile Architecture Framework™ Standard. After giving this some thought I felt compelled to present the optimistic view of this based on my experience with The Open Group over three decades!

2 months, 15 days ago

The Open Group Denver 2019 – Event Highlights

The Open Group hosted its latest event in the beautiful Mile High City of Denver, Colorado, at the Four Seasons Hotel, July 22 – July 25, welcoming approximately 300 attendees from 14 countries including Australia, South Africa, Brazil, Netherlands, India, UAE, and Denmark. The event’s theme, ‘Agile Architecture’, explored the intersection of Agile methodologies and Enterprise Architecture.

2 months, 28 days ago

Snapshot of The Open Group Agile Architecture Framework Standard – A Conversation with Walters Obenson

As organizations around the world pursue more agile ways of working to innovate, attract and retain customers, drive best-in-class operating efficiencies, and respond quickly to changing economic and regulatory conditions, the architecture profession must evolve to support and drive such outcomes.

In continuing over 30 years of publishing award-winning leading practice standards for IT, The Open Group presents the Agile Architecture Framework™ (AAF), a comprehensive revision of core architecture practices – updated to compliment modern, digital operating models and agile development methods.

3 months, 4 days ago

Agile Architecture in the Digital Age – a Conversation with Frédéric Lé

The agile transformation of the enterprise is becoming a pre-requisite of an effective digital transformation project. This requires organizations to adopt a product-centric, outside-in perspective, evolving product and service portfolios – as well as business and operational models – to deliver value faster than ever before. All this, whilst being closely aligned to the businesses needs and objectives.

We spoke with Frédéric Lé, Technology Strategist, Corporate Technology Office at DXC Technology, in advance of The Open Group Denver 2019 event to learn more about how digital leaders and their teams can steer transformation, something he has coined ‘DigitAgile’.

1 year, 9 months ago

The Digital Future: Services Oriented Architecture and Mass Customization, Part 4

From Previous PartsPart 1 discussed the four ages of mankind.  The first was the Age of Speech; for the first time humans could “learn by listening” rather than “learn by doing”; that is, data could be accumulated, communicated, and stored by verb…

1 year, 9 months ago

The Digital Future: Services Oriented Architecture and Mass Customization, Part 3 B

From Previous PartsPart 1 discussed the four ages of mankind.  The first was the Age of Speech; for the first time humans could “learn by listening” rather than “learn by doing”; that is, data could be accumulated, communicated, and stored by ve…

1 year, 10 months ago

The Digital Future: Services Oriented Architecture and Mass Customization, Part 2

From Part 1There have been four ages of mankind.  The first was the Age of Speech; for the first time humans could “learn by listening” rather than “learn by doing”; that is, data could be accumulated, communicated, and stored by verbal communicat…

2 years, 8 months ago

Hurricanes and an Architecture for Process

The idea for this post came from a previous post on this blog regarding enterprise architecture and religious organizations.

Definitions or Definitional Taxonomies

There are three definitions that are needed to understand this post; the definition of Architecture, process using the OODA Loop, and the Hierarchy of Knowledge.  These are somewhat personnel definitions and you may interpolate them into your model universe.

Architecture

Architecture—A functional design of a product, system, or service incorporating all the “must-do” and “must-meet” requirements for that product, system, or service.

OODA Loop

All processes supporting the mission, strategies, or infrastructure of any organization fall into the OODA model of Col. John Boyd.  The OODA, as discussed in several previous posts includes four steps: Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act.  I will discuss this shortly (below) using the example of the prediction of a hurricane.

A Taxonomy for the Hierarchy of Knowledge

I defined the following taxonomy of knowledge based on much reading and some thinking.  I will demonstrate what I mean for each definition by using it in the appropriate place in my example of the hurricane prediction.
Datum—some observation about the Universe at a particular point in four dimensions

Data—a set consistent datum

Information—patterns abstracted from the data.

Knowledge—identified or abstracted patterns in the information.

Wisdom—is the understanding of the consequences of the application of knowledge

Process Architecture and Forecasting Hurricanes

Since the process for predicting or forecasting hurricanes is most likely to be familiar to anyone watching weather on TV, it is the best example I can think of to illustrate how the OODA Loop process architecture works with the taxonomy of knowledge.

Observe

Initially, data is gathered by observing some aspect of the current state of the Universe.  This includes data about the results of their previous actions.  In point of fact,

Datum—some observation about the Universe at a particular point in four dimensions

Data—a set consistent datum

Obviously observations of current temperature, pressure, humidity, and so on, are basic to making weather forecasts, like the prediction of a hurricane.  And each observation requires latitude, longitude, height above sea level, and the exact time to be useful. So one datum, or data point would include, temperature, latitude, longitude, height, and time.

When the temperature is measured at many latitudes and longitudes concurrently, it produces a set of temperature data.  If other weather measurement, like pressure and humidity, are taken at the same locations at the same time, then you have several data sets with which to make a forecast (or a composite weather data set for a particular time).  Because this is a recurrent measurement process, the weather folk continue to build a successively larger composite weather data set.  But large data sets don’t make a forecast of a hurricane.

Orient

The Orient step in the process is inserting the new data into an individual’s model of how the world (Universe) works (descriptive) or should work (prescriptive).  These models are sometimes called paradigms.  Rules from Governance enable and support the Orient step, by structuring the data within the individual’s or organization’s model.  Sometimes these model or paradigms stick around far after they have demonstrated to be defective, wrong, or in conflict with most data and other information.  An example would be the model of the Universe of the Flat Earth society.

Information—patterns abstracted from the data.  This is the start of orienting the observations, the data and information.  Pattern analysis, based on the current model converts data into information is derived from the organization’s model of its environment or Universe.  For hurricane forecasting this would mean looking for centers of low pressure within the data.  It would also include identifying areas with high water temperatures in the temperature data, areas of high humidity, and so on.  This and other abstractions from the data provide the information on which to base a forecast.  But it is still not the prediction of a hurricane.

Knowledge—identified, combined, or abstracted patterns in the information.  Using the same paradigm, environmental model, or model Universe, people analyze and abstract patterns within the information.  This is their knowledge within the paradigm.  In weather forecasting the weather personnel uses the current paradigms (or information structures) to combine and abstract the knowledge that a hurricane is developing.

When they can’t fit information into their model, they often discard as aberrant, an outlier, or as an anomaly.  When enough information doesn’t conveniently fit into their model the adherents have a crisis.  In science, at least, this is the point of a paradigm shift.  And this is what has happened to weather forecasting models over the past one hundred and fifty years.  The result is that the forecasting has gotten much better, though people still complain when a storm moves off its track by fifty miles and causes unforecast wind, rain, and snow events.

Decide

Once the organization or individual has the knowledge, he or she uses input their knowledge within their models of the Universe to make decisions.

Wisdom—is the understanding of the consequences of the application of knowledge. 

This is the hard part of the OODA Loop because it’s difficult to understand both the consequences and the unintended consequences of a decision.  If your paradigm, environment, or Universe model is good, or relatively complete, then you’re more likely to make a good decision.  More frequently than not people make decisions that are “Short term smart and long term dumb.” 

Part of the reason is that they are working with a poor, incomplete or just plain wrong paradigm (view of the world or universe).  This is where the Risk/Reward balance comes in.  When choosing a path forward, what are the risks and rewards with each path?  [Sidebar:  A risk is an unknown and it is wise to understand that “you don’t know what you don’t know”.]  For weather forecasters it’s whether or not to issue a forecast for a hurricane.  To ameliorate the risk that the are wrong, weather forecasters have invented a two part type of forecast, a hurricane watch and a hurricane warning. [Sidebar: It’s split more by giving a tropical storm watch and warning.]

The reason for this warning hierarchy is that the weather forecasters and services are wise enough to know the public’s reaction to warnings that don’t pan out and lack of warnings that do; they understand the risks.  So when they give a hurricane warning, they are fairly sure that the area they have given the warning for will be the area affected by the hurricane.

Act

Once the decision is made people act on those decisions by planning a mission, strategies, and so on within their paradigm.

For governments and utilities in the U.S. this means putting preplanned hurricane preparations into effect.  For people this generally means boarding up the house, stocking up on food, water, and other essentials or packing and leaving.  And for the drunk beach comber this means grabbing the beers out of the frig, and either heading to the hills or back to the beach to watch the show.

Programmed and Unprogrammed Processes

In the 1980s I wrote a number of articles on process types.  After doing much research and much observation, I came to the obvious conclusion that there are two types of processes, Programmed, and those that I will call Unprogrammed and which includes design, discovery, and creative processes. [Sidebar: These three sub-types differ in that design processes start from a set of implicit or explicit customer requirements, discovery processes start from inconsistencies in data or in thinking and modeling the data, and creative really have no clear foundation and tend to be intuitive, chaotic, and apparently random.] 

Programmed Processes

Programmed processes are a set of repeatable activities leading to a nearly certain outcome.  Almost all processes are of this type.  The classic example is automobile manufacturing and assembly.  Since they are repeatable how does the process architecture model apply?
The short answer is to keep them repeatable and to increase their cost efficiency (that is making them less expensive in terms of time and money to create the same outcome).

Keeping Programmed Processes Rolling

To keep your truck or car operating requires maintenance.  How much and when is an OODA Loop process.  For example, you really should check your tires, both for wear and pressure regularly; otherwise the process of driving can become far too exciting.  So you are in the “observe” step.
As the tires wear out or lose pressure too often, the data set becomes information triggering the “orient” step in the process.  At this point a driver starts to gather data on which tires are wearing fastest and where on the tire they are wearing.  This last point may indicate that tire rotation is all that’s needed.
Based on this data our driver models the information (using the computer between his or her ears) to determine how much longer it’s safe to drive on the tires.  Based on results of that model, the driver will “decide” to buy tires, rotate tires, or wait a little longer.  [Sidebar: Actually, many drivers will go through the buy/wait decision based on additional data, the cost of new tires, and their budget.]  The driver will then “act” on the decision, either get new tires or wait (which is really an action).
The point here is that like everything else in our Universe, over time, everything breaks down; so repeatable processes require an OODA Loop process to maintain them.

More Cost Efficient

However, the OODA Loop process architecture elucidated here is important for programmed processes for another reason.  For repeatable processes the key OODA process is always how to make the faster, cheaper, or making a higher quality product at the same or lower price, and producing it in the same or less time.
This is famously what Adam Smith described in his pin example in the first chapter of “The Wealth of Nations”. By creating an assembly line process that he called “the division of labour”, he demonstrated that the same number of workers produce hundreds of more pins.  He went on to describe that each worker might now invent (or innovate, that is, refine or enhance) tools for that worker’s job. [Sidebar: Henry Ford went on to prove this in spades or should I say Model-T’s.]  [Sidebar: To me the worker’s inventing or innovating tools to help them in their job is quite interesting and often missed.  Tools are process or productivity multipliers.  In the military they are called force multipliers; you always want your enemy to bring a knife to your gunfight, because a rifle multiplies your force.  Likewise, the tooling in manufacturing can increase the quality of the product, the uniformity of what is produced, while reducing the cost and time to produce…fairly obvious.]
Both the “division of labour” and the creation of tooling require the use of the Architectural OODA Loop, which means that increasing the cost efficiency of manufacturing uses the OODA Loop with the knowledge taxonomy.

Unprogrammed Process

Unprogrammed processes have stochastic (creative and unplanned activities within them).  There are really three sub-types of unprogrammed processes, design, discovery, and creative. The key differences between the design, discovery, and creative processes are the whether the process has customer requirements driven and what the requirements are.

Design

The design process has customer requirements.  [Sidebar: As I’m using it, the design process also includes custom development, implementation, and manufacturing.]  It uses a semi-planned process, that is, program or project planning creates a plan to meet the objectives, but with latitude for alternative activities because there is significant risk.  The actual design activities within the programmed process are stochastic, from a program management perspective.  That is, the creative element of these activities makes less predictable, and therefore with programmatic risk with respect to cost and schedule.  Therefore, program management must use (some form or) the OODA architecture to manage the program or project.
The stochastic activities are themselves OODA Loop processes.  The designers have to identify (observe) detailed data of the functions they are attempting to create (the “must do” requirements), while working to the specifications (the”must meet” requirements) for the product, system, or service.  The designers then have to “orient” these (creating a functional design or architecture for the function), “decide” which of several alternate proposed designs is “the best”. Finally, they “act” on the decision.

Discovery

The requirements for research, risk reduction, and root cause analysis are generally unclear and may be close to non-existent.  One of my favorite research examples, because it’s well known, and because it so clearly proves the point is the Wright Brothers researching and developing the aircraft.  In 1898 the brothers started their research efforts.  Starting with data and information then publicly available they built a series of kites. With each kite, they collected additional data and new types of data.  They then used this to reorient their thinking and their potential design for the next kite.  They found so many problems with the existing data that they created the wind tunnel to create their own data sets on which to base their next set of designs.  By the end of 1902 they had created a glider capable of controllable manned flight and by 1903 they created the powered glider known as the Wright Flyer.  It took them at least two more cycles of the OODA Loop to develop a commercially useful aircraft.
Risk reduction also uses the OODA Loop.  A risk is an unknown.  It requires some type of research to convert the unknown into a known.  There are four alternative.  First, the project/research team must decide whether or not to simply “accept” the risk. Many times the team orients the observed risk in a risk/reward model and accepts the risk.  However, another to orient is to determine if there is knowledge or knowledgeable people to convert the unknown into a known. So “transferring” the risk is one way to reduce the risk.  A second method is to “avoid” the risk.  This means redesigning the product, system, or service, or changing the method for achieving the goal or target.  The final way is to “mitigate” the risk.  This is nothing short of or more than creating a research project (see above) to convert the unknown into a Known.
Likewise, root cause analysis is a research effort.  However, the target of this analysis is to identify why some function or component is not working the way it is supposed to work.  Again, its observing the problem or issue, that is gathering data, orienting it through modeling the functions based on the data, deciding what the cause is or causes are for the problem and how to “fix” the problem, and then acting on the decision.  Sound a whole lot like the OODA Loop.

Creative

Creative processes like theory building (both through extrapolation and interpolation), and those of the “fine arts” that come from emotions also use the Architecture of Process defined in this post.  For some theories and all fine arts, “the requirements” come from emotion, based on an intuitive belief structure [Sidebar: a religious structure, see my post on architecture of religion].  This intuitive structure provides “the data, information, and knowledge” on which the creativity builds.
However, for scientific theories, at least, they are sometimes based on inconsistencies in the results of the current paradigm.  The theorist attempts to define a new structure that will account for these aberrant data.

Why make a Deal about the Obvious?

To many it might seem that I’m making a big deal about what is obvious.  If it is the case, why hasn’t it been inculcated into enterprise architecture and used in the construction and refinement of processes and tooling to support the charter, mission, objective, strategies and tactics of all organizations?  Using formal architectural models like the architecture for process, presented in this post, will enable the enterprise architects to “orient” their data and information more clearly making Enterprise Architecture that much more valuable.
2 years, 8 months ago

Hurricanes and an Architecture for Process

The idea for this post came from a previous post on this blog regarding enterprise architecture and religious organizations.Definitions or Definitional TaxonomiesThere are three definitions that are needed to understand this post; the definition of Arc…

2 years, 9 months ago

Enterprise Architecture, Systems Engineering, and Regulations: Process Rudders or Process Brakes

Regulations: The “Must Meet” Requirements

Regulations directly affect all organizations, products, systems, and services. Further, they can be a rudder guiding the organization or a brake causing the organization to stop making any progress in meeting its charter, goal, or in completing its mission.  This post discusses laws, rules, specifications, standard, regulations (or simply regulations) as a part of any enterprise architecture or systems engineering effort.

The Customer Requirements Identification and Management tool that I’ve developed, CARRMA®, uses the concept of Must Meet requirements to store both the regulations and the metrics for meeting the regulation.  If more than one project has a particular regulation imposed on it, the CARRMA®’s data store will allow for reuse.

Regulations the rudders of an organization

Any commandment, law, rule, specification, standard, or regulation creates process friction, by its very nature.  It inhibits what can be done or defines what must be done. For example, saying “Thou Shall not Kill” means that it’s not nice to end a vehemently intense discussion by bouncing your opponent “six feet under”, though that might be very satisfying at the moment.  That is, killing is not a good solution to an intra-group disagreement since it doesn’t promote understanding, knowledge and therefore value growth of the group and doesn’t instill trust with other groups.

Hoping that I’ve made the point that regulations curb action or ensure action, by an over-the-top example, a regulation acts like a rudder, making it difficult for a process and thus a strategy to go one way, thereby making it easier to go another.  This, in turn, may directly affect the organization’s charter, mission, or goal.  In any rational system it should enable both the charter/mission/goal and the strategies and processes for achieving these.
Fortunately or more importantly, unfortunately systems and organizations built by humans are not entirely rational and sometimes not rational at all.  If the economy is the engine that powers the ship-of-state in an organization, then each commandment, law, rule, specification, standard, or regulation enacted is a rudder with its own wheel guided by part of the crew steering the organization toward their own Avalon.

Arrow’s Paradox and Catch 22s

At some point the number of rudders pointing at all points of the compass are such that the organization be it private or a ship-of-state either comes to a complete halt or turns in tight circles.  The rudders have formed a damn that effectively stops all forward progress of the organization, which no amount of churning by the organization’s economic engine can overcome.  Some of these regulation rudders are small and some are very large.  Twist the large ones hard and the ship brakes to a crawl and it may not turn at all. 

Arrow’s Paradox

A bigger problem is that too many regulation rudders will simply cause the organizational ship to stop and not make any of the ports.  Dr. Kenneth Arrow’s is known for “Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem” [Sidebar: For which he won the Nobel Prize], which is also known as Arrow’s Paradox.  He demonstrated mathematically that if an organization has three or more goals that they want to optimize, they will be able to only optimize on two (or I suspect they can sub-optimize on all three).

The point here isn’t that organizations can’t have more than one goal or objective; it is that if the organization attempts to define more than two (or maybe three) objectives using the “policy/regulation” strategy, the organization will slow down, wobble around, and achieve none of the objectives.

If you add in that in a democracy the goals and objectives change as controlling constituencies change, normally you end up with more and more laws, regulations, rules, and standards each attempting to use its regulatory rudder to change the course of the ship-of-state to reach the objective for which it was enacted.  The net result is that either the ship-of-state will end up on the rocks or going in circles.

From personal experience with federal contracts and from a recent DoD report, I can illustrate the problem.  One goal, which probably should be the only goal of DoD contracting, is to provide the most effective weapons in the world for the US Military.  That is, the weapons should be the greatest force multiplier.

However, the contracting office is faced with a second objective (a second rudder) of acquiring these weapons cost efficiently.  There are two metrics for cost efficiency, the initial cost (including research, development, and construction), and life-cycle costs (maintenance, upgrades, and disposal).  The question for the contracting officer is, “Do you contract for the cheapest initial cost product or for the one that will cost the least over the product’s projected lifespan?”

Then there is a third rudder in the form of the dependability of the product, system, or service. “Dependability encompasses all of the “illities”, including reliability, maintainability, serviceability, and so on.  Each of these has metrics and standards that must be met.  In some cases the metrics for the standard or policy is either untestable in a timely manner or in a few infeasible or impossible to meet.  All of these rudders will force addition time and expense into the effort.

A fourth rudder is reconfigurability and upgradeability of the product, system, or service.  Before the US Civil War, the rate of change of weapons and support systems was such that weapons and weapons systems had no need for this “Must Meet” requirement/policy.  The weapon would be worn out long be the technology changed.  However, since then it’s obvious that technology has and is continuing to accelerate (to the point that for many systems, they must be upgraded before their development and implementation is completed).  These continue to increase the initial design costs. [Sidebar: Services Oriented Architecture can reduce these costs greatly for IT systems, and modular systems/product can do the same for hardware of all types.]

A fifth rudder, and first one that is politically/social motivated as well as costly is the implied policy that all congressional districts and states should have jobs related to weapons and intelligence system development, especially where the senator or representative sits on committees dealing with budgets and military programs.  A recent DoD study has shown that this can add 20 to 25 percent to the cost of a product, system, or service for the DoD.
Then comes the politically motivated socially liberal welfare policy rudders (those intended to regulate social welfare and social change).  For weapons and intelligence tools, these require that a certain percent of the work on the product be from female owned companies and another percentage be from “minority” owned businesses.  [Sidebar:  The social actives’ idea was that the only way these groups could break into DoD contracting was through regulation.  I think they were correct because most of the work they did that I observed over the 25 years I was associate with government contracted engineering demonstrated beyond a doubt that they were incompetent to compete with a level playing field.  Many times the prime contractor had to supply the engineering capability to complete the job over schedule and way over cost.]  While it isn’t Politically Correct to attempt to define how much money was spent on this contracting welfare, from personal experience I expect that it is very significant.

The point of this section is not to discuss the problems with the regulations and informal policies of DoD contracting, rather it’s to demonstrate that as more laws, policies, regulations, business rules, standards, and so on (the “Must Meet” requirements) are imposed on a program, especially, extraneous ones, that both the effectiveness of product and the cost efficiency of the project or program are reduced.  And at some point there are so many “Must Meet” requirements that the effort, even at the enterprise architectural level will fail.

Catch-22

The extreme case of Arrow’s Paradox is the famous Catch-22 where two regulations are diametrically opposed leaving whatever effort, project, program, organization, or enterprise going in circles and making no progress in any direction. Even with a ship-of-state the size of the United States (which is a supertanker sized economy), given enough Catch-22s and nothing will get done; too many steersmen, too many rudders, and too many goals (targets, harbors, or whatever).

A good current and everyday example of regulatory Catch-22 is deicing roads.  Having icy sidewalks can be very exciting and occasionally lethal—so it really is not a good thing.  So deicing the sidewalks is mandatory.  Deicing calls for the use chemicals like sodium chloride (salt).

The problem is that there are regulations (must meet) requirements for the use and storage of “salt” because it “pollutes the environment” (and it does, you should see my grass near the sidewalk and road).  So you must use chemicals to save lives but you must not to save the environment.  Two regulatory “must meet” requirements (rudders) are in opposition, one to save lives and one to save the environment.  This is a small example of a big problem that can and will bring the economic ship-of-state to a dead stop.

Reducing the Number of Regulatory Brakes but Keeping the Rudders

To get any organization to at least head to a goal it should be clear that removing internal policies that interfere with the attainment of the goal is necessary.  For large organizations with many sub-organizations, the issue becomes one of identifying which regulations guide the organization in the direction its charter, goal, or mission state and which are braking it to a stop.  For many organizations, but especially democratic style governments, there will always conflicting goals and missions and therefore conflicting regulations.  So how should a large organization or government determine which are rudders and which are brakes?
To my mind, this is a good place to apply Enterprise Architecture and the architectural model that I set out both in my book and in this blog.  The nice thing about that architectural model is that it can start as a static model that can be used to identify customer requirements and end up as a dynamic model of the enterprise (even the Ship-of-State).  As such, it can identify policies that are braking or causing bottlenecks in the processes enabling the strategies for attaining the goal or mission.  Until you can dynamically model the enterprise, you will never really be able to identify the unintended consequences and negative externalities of any policy, standard, or regulation.  Nor, as the goal or mission changes can you identify those policies, standards, or regulations that truly impede progress in the changed direction (though many politicians in the organization will be able to tell you, or so they believe).

For those policies and standards internal to the organization, the leadership should be able to understand which regulations support the organization’s strategies and process and which don’t.  Additionally, the leadership can propose changes, deletions, and new regulations, which the enterprise architect can then model to determine the likely consequences, both intended and unintended.  Once the enterprise architects have oriented the changes the leadership proposes [Sidebar: See the OODA loop] the leadership can then choose what internal policies, standards, and regulations to change and which changes to implement with a much lower risk while seeing the their organization move more quickly toward achieving its goal.  [Sidebar: The modeling will also show where leaders and managers of sub-units are working on their own agenda which might or might not be steering toward the overall goal.  Remember the Systems Engineering axiom, “Optimizing the sub-systems sub-optimizes the system.”]

For governments, especially for the legislative branch, architectural modeling is particularly important both to determine conflicting laws, regulations, rules, standards and codes.  If, as the architectural models mature and their predictions help to make better decisions, there may even be fewer vehemently intense discussions about which laws, regulations, rules, standards, and codes to enact and which to remove or rewrite…Interesting.